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Hence came a whole category of orders justly considered apocryphal.

In the seventeenth century Marino Caraccioli (1624), a Neapolitan nobleman, succeeded in passing himself off as Grand Master of the Order of Knights of St.

A regular order of knighthood means a brotherhood or confraternity which combines with the insignia of knighthood the privileges of monks.

Michael, attributed to King Alfonso I of Portugal (1176), nor of the Order of the Ship, which St.Louis was supposed to have founded on the eve of the crusade to Tunis where he died (1270), nor of that of the Argonauts of St.Thomas of Canterbury, an order of hospitallers for the service of English pilgrims.It seems to have been made dependent on the Hospitallers of St.Lastly, there are the purely hospitaller orders whose commanders, however, claimed the rank of knights though they had never been in battle, such as the Orders of St.

Lazarus of Jerusalem and of the Holy Spirit of Montpellier.Nicholas, attributed to Charles III, King of Naples, 1382.Philippe de Mezières, chancellor of the King of Cyprus, drew up the statutes of an Order of the Passion of Christ (1360) the text of which has recently been published, but which were never enforced.Royalty afterwards utilized this new idea to strengthen its own position or to reward faithful nobles, creating secular orders of knighthood until there was no country without its royal or princely order.Even private individuals entered into the business; adventurers attempted to exploit the vanity of the by sham insignia of knighthood with which they decked themselves, and which they distributed among their dupes lavishly — though not gratuitously.George, which he pretended to trace to Constantine the Great.