The old heartland of Montenegro, in the southwest, is mainly a karstic region of arid hills, with some cultivable areas—e.g., around Cetinje and in the Zeta valley.
The eastern districts, which include part of the Dinaric Alps (Mount ), are more fertile and have large forests and grassy uplands.
Sparsely populated Montenegro is noted as a habitat for numerous mammals, including bears, deer, martens, and wild pigs ( are a matter of continuing controversy.
In southern Montenegro, streams flow toward the Adriatic.
Much of the drainage of the karstic region is not on the surface but travels in underground channels.
Snow cover is rare along the Montenegrin coast, averaging 10 days in karstic polje depressions and increasing to 120 days in the higher mountains.
One-third of Montenegro, principally in the high mountains, remains covered with broad-leaved forest.
In addition, Montenegrin pronunciation is closer to Croatian than to Serbian.
A strong nationalist movement grew alongside Montenegrin resentment of Serbian attempts to minimize their distinctiveness.
(5,738 feet [1,749 metres]), its historical centre near the Adriatic Sea and its stronghold in the centuries of struggle with the Turks.
Alone among the Balkan states, Montenegro was never subjugated.
in the Durmitor Mountains, which reaches 8,274 feet (2,522 metres) and is the country’s highest point.
The Montenegrin mountains were the most ice-eroded section of the Balkan Peninsula during the last glacial period., which forms the border between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia.
The drainage system of Montenegro flows in two opposite directions.