Not all trafficked women returning to Albania will be unable to access the arrangements and facilities available to enable successful re-integration.
Over four days of hearing we heard evidence from AM, Dr Roxane Agnew-Davies, a clinical psychologist specialising in violence against women, and from Dr Stephanie Schwandner-Sievers.
We also had before us a report from Mr Alex Standish of the Department of Anthropology at Durham University and a number of medical reports relating to the appellants as well as the background documentation which we have listed in the addendum to this determination which includes the annual reports of the organisations in Albania set up to assist trafficked women who have been returned to Albania. Article 3 of the United Nations Protocol, to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children dated 15th November 2000, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organised Crime (the ‘Trafficking Protocol’) of that date, defines ‘Trafficking in Persons’ in the following terms:(a) ‘Trafficking in persons’ shall mean the recruitment, transportation transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation.
She found a building with two rubbish containers and hid behind them for the night.
The next day she went to a park and heard an Albanian woman talking, whom she approached. The police would not protect her, as she had no money to bribe them.
A took her back to Albania five months later in March 2006. About two months later, the Appellant realised that her stomach was getting bigger and she told A she believed she was pregnant. A then told her that he would take the Appellant to England and sell the baby. A, N and the Appellant travelled on a lorry on 3 July 2006, and A left them when they changed lorries.
She did not think of this before as she always had irregular periods. She remembered the date because A had said they would have to be on the lorry on 3 July. When they arrived in the UK, N cut a hole in the canvas of the lorry and they got out.
AM (hereinafter referred to as “AM”) was born on 16 August 1983 in Sinat Village, near Kukes in Northern Albania.
She entered Britain illegally in July 2006 and her daughter was born on 5 August 2006.
Upper Tribunal (Immigration and Asylum Chamber) AM and BM (Trafficked women) Albania CG  UKUT 80 (IAC) THE IMMIGRATION ACTSHeard at Field House (AIT Procession House)On 17 & 18 February 2009 (Field House)and on 5 & Field House (Procession House)Before SENIOR IMMIGRATION JUDGE MCGEACHYSENIOR IMMIGRATION JUDGE SOUTHERNMS J ENDERBYBetween AM BMAppellantsandTHE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR THE HOME DEPARTMENTRespondent Representation: For the Appellants: Mr D. Blundell, of Counsel instructed by the Treasury Solicitora) It is not possible to set out a typical profile of trafficked women from Albania: trafficked women come from all areas of the country and from varied social backgrounds.
Jones and Mrs R Kotak, of Counsel instructed by Messrs Wilson and Co. b) At its worst the psychological damage inflicted on a victim of trafficking can lead to difficulties in reintegrating into Albanian society and has implications on whether or not it is possible for the victim of trafficking, should she fear persecution in her own area, to relocate.c) Much of Albanian society is governed by a strict code of honour which not only means that trafficked women would have very considerable difficulty in reintegrating into their home areas on return but also will affect their ability to relocate internally.
The woman, called Anita, felt sorry for her, took her home and had subsequently put her in touch with solicitors. She only had the telephone number of a friend, which had been in her notebook that A had taken away. She feared returning to Albania, as her family would feel disgraced as she had worked as a prostitute and they would not let her keep her baby. She did not believe she would be safe anywhere in Albania as such men had connections everywhere.”The Immigration Judge’s conclusions were set out in paragraphs 29 to 42 as follows:“29.