The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars and a limited conflict - in 1947-48, 1965, and 1999 respectively - over the disputed Kashmir territory.
Despite pressing problems such as significant overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and widespread corruption, economic growth following the launch of economic reforms in 1991 and a massive youthful population are driving India's emergence as a regional and global power.
The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples.
The British Indian Army played a vital role in both World Wars.
Years of nonviolent resistance to British rule, led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU, eventually resulted in Indian independence, which was granted in 1947.
Investors’ perceptions of India improved in early 2014, due to a reduction of the current account deficit and expectations of post-election economic reform, resulting in a surge of inbound capital flows and stabilization of the rupee.
Since the election, the government has passed an important goods and services tax bill and raised foreign direct investment caps in some sectors but most economic reforms have focused on administrative and governance changes largely because the ruling party remains a minority in India’s upper house of Parliament, which must approve most bills.The Indus Valley civilization, one of the world's oldest, flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B. C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia.India's nuclear weapons tests in 1998 emboldened Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year.In November 2008, terrorists originating from Pakistan conducted a series of coordinated attacks in Mumbai, India's financial capital.Rising macroeconomic imbalances in India and improving economic conditions in Western countries led investors to shift capital away from India, prompting a sharp depreciation of the rupee.